Roses, description of the type of plant, an overview of conditions and choice of location in the room, proposals for transplantation, feeding, reproduction, and pest control. Rose (Rosa) belongs to the Pink family and is a member of the Rosehip tribe. Only those members of this tribe who are cultivated by humans are considered roses. From time immemorial, the flower has always been a symbol of beauty – its delicate petals are so harmonious with sharp thorns. With hard work, growers have already grown more than 30 thousand varieties of these beautiful plants. The first mention of the rose can be found in the annals of ancient Rome, where they began to cultivate it not only for aesthetic pleasure but with the active use of many useful properties. At that time, about 10 varieties of representatives of the Pink family were already known. The ancient Greek philosopher Theophrastus mentions in his annals the flowers of these plants, which consist of 5 to 100 petals. Today, the rose occupies a royal place in the world and is the most popular and sold flower. It is rather difficult to say where the name comes from, as the roots are from the ancient Greek, Persian, Armenian, and early Iranian languages. But when you look at the flower (in the classic picture, the bud has 32 petals), it looks like the “wind rose” itself, maybe it was a prototype for the name of the plant.
In shape, the rose bush acquires a narrow pyramidal appearance or spreads its clouds in different directions. According to the descriptions, different varieties of roses are only similar in the structure of the leaves – their structure is complex, pinnate, and contains 5 to 11 leaves. The length of the flowering stems is between 10 and 80 cm and the diameter of the bud in the full display can reach 18 cm (there are “children” only 1, 8 cm in diameter). The flowers of the rose are bisexual, blooming several times during the summer months. The number of petals in some varieties reaches 128 units per bud. One flower can grow on a plant and the number of buds in flowering approaches 300. The color of the petals, like their fragrance, is astonishing with its diversity. It is only a pure blue shade, but a rose with green petals has already been cultivated, but so far it is only interested by botanists.
The beneficial properties of the rose are due to the fact that the flowers contain a large amount of essential oil, for which the plant is grown, and not only to make bouquets. This oil has the property of calming the human nervous system and stimulating brain cells in the robot. But to get only 1 gram of this precious oil, you need to process up to 30 kg of rose petals. In Bulgaria, there is only a valley where a bush of Maslenitsa roses is grown. And the oil produced in Bulgaria is considered the most expensive and of the highest quality.
The presence of fatty acids, which are present in the petals of the plant, is used in the manufacture of cosmetics. With their help, you can restore the protective properties of the skin, and remove inflammation and various irritations. On the basis of active ingredients from rose flowers, preparations that inhibit pathogens are created.
After flowering, the rose develops the fruit of a peanut-like shape with a dense and woody shell. Maturation takes place from August to September. The number of seeds varies from 5 to 100 or more. Like the fruit of its offspring, rose hips, and “pink nuts” are widely used in medicine. And while it is customary to grow roses in flower beds in gardens and squares, there are florists who prefer to admire the flowers of this queen of the garden in the window. But unfortunately, not every single rose can grow indoors, so there is a list of effective cultivation of this plant introduced.
Conditions for growing roses on windowsills
To delight you with blooming roses, choose a variety that grows well in rooms or greenhouses – these are miniatures, floribunda, Bengal, and tea varieties. The flowering time can be about 170 days.
The height of the smaller roses reaches 25-30 cm, which is very suitable for home cultivation, floribunda plants stretch from 30 to 90 cm in height, but the Bengal variety is 50-60 cm different. Tea roses can grow up to two meters in height, but it is a branch of low-growing plants that do not exceed half a meter.
- Description: Rose is very fond of warmth and bright light. If you put a pot with a plant on the windowsill, which the sun’s rays almost do not look at, this will lead to the flower starting to wither, its buds are crushed and there is a high probability that it will be damaged by pests. Therefore, it is necessary to place a flowerpot with a rose, on the curtains of windows facing southeast, south-west, and only if there is no other option for south-facing windows. It is necessary to arrange shade there, in the hottest hours of the day, from the gauze curtain or thin golden cabbage, but still, the plant can be too hot there. With the arrival of autumn, the flower should be supplemented with special plant lamps or flowering lamps. The distance from the lamp to the plant should not be less than 30 cm. There is also one prerequisite for the inflow of fresh air, that is to say, that frequent ventilation in the room where the rose is located is necessary – this will help the plant to avoid overheating. During the autumn-winter period, it is important to protect the plant from drafts or install a screen to protect it from cold glasses. When spring comes, as soon as the night heat allows, it is preferable to have the rose on the balcony or terrace, take it out into the garden but make sure that the place chosen for the “holiday” of the plant is illuminated and protected from drafts.
- Rose content temperature. Although the flower queen loves warmth, overheating will lead to her death, so it is necessary to withstand summer temperatures not exceeding 25 degrees, otherwise, the root system of the flower will overheat. With the arrival of winter, it is possible to lower the temperature indices down to 10 degrees; a so-called “dormant” period begins. Protect the rose from the dry and hot air of a central heating battery and heater, as it may not tolerate this and will die.
- The moisture content of the home rose. In order for the plant to grow well and not be exposed to pests, it is necessary that the humidity in the air does not fall below 60% or moderate maintenance. When the summer heat comes or as soon as the heating in the room is switched on, you need to regularly spray the plant with soft water (up to 2 times a day). When a rose is blooming, it is important to keep track of it so that moisture drops do not fall on the petals. When there are no flowers, you can provide frequent (daily) showering methods, which will not only wash away the dust from the leaves but also promote increased moisture.
- Water the rose bush. As soon as the rose is peppered, its watering will be rare or moderate. Here it is important to focus on the condition of the soil in the pot – when the top layer becomes completely dry, moisture is formed. During the winter, flooding the pot will cause the plant to die quickly. As soon as the rose begins to show signs of new growth – the appearance of young leaves inflammation of the buds, the moisture increases slightly. With the arrival of the summer months, the watering of the rose becomes abundant and frequent, however, any excess moisture, such as glass from the pot into the stand, should be removed immediately. Moisturizing is done very carefully; water is poured directly under the root of the plant. Use only soft, built-up water for this operation. You can filter and boil tap water, but it is best to collect rainwater or make melted snow. The temperature of the water for irrigation should be room temperature, not cold at all,
- Use of packaging for the rose. In order for the plant to grow well, it is necessary to apply fertilizer, as they use mineral compounds that contain nitrogen compounds. Regular wrapping at flowering is weekly and at other times (autumn-winter) only a few times every 30 days. You can not only apply fertilizer to the soil but also use special compositions to spray the bush. The rose also responds well to organic fertilizers, such as mullein solution. It is necessary to do, alternating with mineral binders. Do not fertilize if the pot is dry. Before the operation, the substrate must be well moistened with clean, well-drained water; otherwise, the root system may burn. It is also not recommended to perform top dressing as soon as the plant has been transplanted. In order for the roses to adapt, they wait up to two weeks.
This type of care is very important when growing roses at home. It is light, medium, and strong pruning.
- Light is the one where the branches of the plant are cut by 2/3. If such pruning takes place for several years, the shrub will stretch strongly and the flowers will not bloom well.
- With average pruning, the branches of the bush are cut down almost in half, and if the shoot is diseased, then even more.
- If a strong cut is needed, the branch is cut from scratch to the height of the third or fourth buds. The length of the remaining shot is measured at 15 cm. This pruning is applied to the bushes of newly planted plants.
With regard to home rose transplantation and soil preparation, these are very important conditions for growing a rose indoors. Once the plant has been purchased, no transplant is performed, and the rose is given the opportunity to adapt for 2-3 weeks. Young roses need an annual transplant and as soon as the plant reaches 4 years of age, the pot and soil are changed as needed. The container should be selected from thick ceramic walls.
1 cm of drainage is poured into the bottom of the pot if there are holes in the container to drain excess moisture. In their absence, the thickness of the drainage layer increases to 4 cm. The container for transplant is chosen considerably more than the previous one, otherwise, the rose will bloom poorly. The pot is increased by 5 cm in width and height compared to the previous one.
The flowerpot with the plant is turned over, the rose is held by a hand, then the pot is tapped a little, and the lump of soil with the root system of the flower is taken out. Without destroying the soil, it is placed in a new ready-made container, the pot is filled with soil along the edges to the center, it must be well compacted and watered with soft water. Then the substrate is filled on top and moistened again. After transplanting, the plant cannot be watered for some time, but the leaves can only be sprayed. After one or two days, you can put the rose pot in place of steady growth.
Also, for the substrate during transplantation, use a specially purchased soil “rose”, which is characterized by moisture and air permeability, or the soil mixture is composed independently of the following ingredients:
- Boiled land, humus soil, coarse sand (in the ratio 4: 4: 1);
- Clay-boiled soil or garden soil, humus soil or compost (ratios are taken 1: 1);
- Garden land, peat bog, hummu (in the ratio 1: 2: 2) plus a small part of the annual sand.
Recommendations for growing roses indoors
To get a new plant, methods are used for cuttings, planting seeds, and transplanting. But for indoor propagation, cuttings are the best way. This method of obtaining a new rose is the simplest and can be performed at any time of the year.
Also, after the planned cutting, pieces of cut clouds are used for reproduction (over time – this is the beginning of the spring months). If you are cutting branches from a bush, then you should choose healthy and well-developed shoots. Using a sharp knife cut a branch about 13-15 cm long, where there are already 3-4 living buds and at least a few leaves. The incision is made slightly obliquely under the flower bud – this is done so that the incision surface of the incision increases in area, and the incision absorbs nutrients and moisture. The upper incision can be made directly or also at a slight incline, then the sealing drops will roll off of it. Complex leaves are removed so that there are no more than 4 leaves left on the branch. It is important that if there are buds, then they must be removed completely.
Then these branches are placed in clean boiled water at a temperature of 20-23 degrees. You can add the drug “Kornevin” to it, which increases the chances of early root formation. After a few weeks, the cuttings should have roots, they should grow up to 1.5–2 cm. Then they are planted in a 200–300 ml container, with prepared soil with added phytohormones, so that the rose bushes take root better. Pour a layer of nutrients into the bottom of the pot and then a layer of moist and disinfected coarse sand, perlite, or similar material. This is done to provide more nutrition for roots that grow through sand or other material. But you can do without this by planting cuttings in sand or perlite.
The branch is placed in the substrate slightly at an angle of 1.5-2 cm depth. It is important that planted cuttings do not touch or shade each other. Next, pots with plants are covered with plastic wrap or placed under a glass jar. This will help maintain the required temperature and humidity. It is necessary to ventilate the greenhouse regularly so that condensation does not accumulate in it and moisten the soil only if it has dried slightly from above. The thermometer should not go beyond 22-27 degrees. It is recommended to place pots with cuttings on curtains of bright windows, but not in direct sunlight.
You can also get a plant from a bouquet of roses. To do this, cut a stem that is 15-20 cm long, and remove all buds and leaves. The stalk is moistened with water and both incisions are covered with potassium permanganate. For one day it is placed in a lower incision in a solution of potassium permanganate. Then the twig sits in the prepared substrate to a depth of one bud. Next, the ditch is planted in a prepared pot with a substrate and a covered plastic bag. Think of him in the same way as described earlier.
Problems with growing roses and pest control
Most often, all species of roses grown at home are affected by the red spider mite. They can help in the early stages of the disease by spraying with folk remedies – oil, soap, or alcohol solutions, as well as removing pests manually with a cotton swab moistened in this way. If this method did not work, then it is worth using modern insecticides.
The rose can also be sensitive to mildew sugar. In this case, all the leaves affected by the disease are cut off and destroyed and the plant is sprayed with sulfur (but this method is rarely used indoors). You can perform the treatment with soda solution – 2 tsp. dissolves in 1 liter of water. Before the procedure, the pot and soil are covered with a plastic bag. The duration of treatment is one and a half months on a regular basis for two weeks.